Diesel engine emissions and lung cancer: insights from research design to policy
Diesel engines are widely used by transportation and equipment in many industry sectors, including mining, construction, and electricity generators. Composition of diesel engine emission (DEE) is very complex and includes carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon components, ash, sulfate, and metals. During the past decades, numerous studies provided evidence for adverse health effects of exposure to DEE (1,2). In particular, the issue of long-term exposure to DEE and lung health has attracted extensive attention worldwide.